The story of the brunswick diadem of Duchess Viktoria Luise, princess of prussia caroline,monaco,impatrice josephine,Vikoria Luise,Herzogin Braunschweig Lueneburg,Hannover,duchy,wedding,bride,Tiara,Prinzessin,Princess,daughter,Kaiser,duke,Geschenk,braunschweigisch,Schmuck,emperor,Bernadotte,Napoleon,kaiserin,royals,royal jewels,tiaras,diadem,diamant,antik,Geschenk,diamonds,prussia,welfen,imperial Princess Caroline of Hanover - Brunswick Tiara The story of the brunswick tiara of Duchess Viktoria Luise, princess of prussia Princess Caroline of Hanover - Brunswick Tiara Princess Caroline of Hanover - Brunswick Tiara royal jewels - tiara imperial and royal jewels The story of the brunswick tiara of Duchess Viktoria Luise, princess of prussia Princess Caroline of Hanover wearing the Brunswick Tiara The story of the brunswick tiara of Duchess Viktoria Luise, princess of prussia Princess Caroline of Hanover - Brunswick Tiara Princess Caroline of Hanover - Brunswick Tiara Empress Josephine Tiara - Diademe  impatrice josephine The story of the brunswick diadem of Duchess Viktoria Luise, princess of prussia Viktoria Luise - braunschweiger Diadem 
there are several version of that picture and the large one also in orginal, all are a little bit different about the center / details of the diadem(different painter, free interpretation).

I think there is another piture of the empress, I will add it to the website, when I found it,but so long, I had use this item for the impression.  Braunschweig- Brunswick - Hannover -

Excerpts from the diaries of the ducal state minister of Brunswick, Adolf Hartwieg († 1914), about the wedding gift of the Land Brunswick.

Especially during the years 1912/13, Hartwieg successfully finished off the exceptionally difficult preparations for the arrangement of the heir apparents. Below, a summary of his extensive and full diaries, his private and official correspondence and the unfortunately incomplete files of the state archives in Wolfenbüttel, the Landtag minutes and the files of the embassy of Brunswick concerning the gift of the tiara:

Hartwieg always was a pronounced follower of the traditional dynasty. It was not that this corresponded to the opinion of the monarchic minded bourgeoisie of that time, but more of an inherited conviction as a descendent of an ancient patrician family of Brunswick, whose collateral line had provided the reigning royal House Wolfenbüttel some princely Secretary, Chamber-, War- and Court Counsellor. One of them signed as a doctor of laws, legal counsellor and representative of the Crown the treaty of St.Petersburg in 1615, which finished the long feuds between the city of Brunswick and the reigning Royal House of Wolfenbüttel.

On the occasion of the selection of a sovereign for the dukedom after the death of the last scion of the Royal House of Brunswick (the elder line), who deceased unmarried and without heirs, Hartwieg reproached the Landtag for having contacted the Duke of Cumberland, the English collateral line of the House of Brunswick, in order to prevent the choice of a foreign sovereign. This reproach probably derived from the fact that the Marshall Hunter von Kalm proposed among his friends to send him to Gmunden as a mediator.

A long time before a connection between the Houses of Cumberland and Prussia was suspected, Hartwieg contacted the followers of the Hanoverian Guelph party in order to settle the question which had been on his mind a long time:
if it was his duty to remind the Council of Ministers of finishing off the problem of the succession to the throne. In his letters he wrote:
“We finally have to get out of our insecure situation and try to find our traditional Duke.”

Having been appointed state minister, he continuously pursued the aim to remove all obstacles that might prevent the accession of the legitimate Royal House to the throne. The engagement of Prince Ernst August with the daughter of the Prussian king was the natural cause to drive forward his aim with both intensity and prudence.

Here he was kindly supported by Prince Max of Baden, who was related to the House of Cumberland, and – it cannot be emphasised enough – by the sovereign at that time, who thereby accelerated the end of his own reign.


Mentioning all the above in advance is necessary for the comprehension of the following:
Having announced the engagement, Hartwieg started to think about how the Land of Brunswick could express its delight for the event. And thereby we come to the actual topic:

Hartwieg requested an audience from the monarch in order for receiving the ducal agreement for the wedding gift of the land of Brunswick.
There were several conferences about it, one of them with Prince Heinrich XXX. Reuß, who was serving as a lieutenant colonel in the staff Br. i.R. 92. H
He knew about the possibility of buying a tiara. The monarch took up this idea and proposed himself to choose a diadem. There was few time until the wedding and it seemed impossible to make a new tiara, so they had to look out for one which had already been manufactured.
Fortunately, the Saxon Court Jeweller, Moritz Ellimeyer, in Dresden had such a jewel.
Hartwieg made the jeweller to present it to him. The correspondence between him and Jeweller Ellimeyer about the purchase
I saw several version of that picture and the large one also in orginal, all are a little bit different about the center / details of the diadem(different painter, free interpretation).

I think there is another piture of the empress, I will add it to the website, when I found it,...but so long, I had use this item for the impression.diadem tiara josephine is kept in the national archives. They contain important details on the origins of the tiara, which Hartwieg wanted to be informed of.
The tiara originates from the imperial jewels of the Bonaparte family and was worn of the Empress Josephine Beauharnais. There is a painting of the Empress where the tiara can be identified. The bill of costs with details, is also kept in the national archives.

In the diadem, which they wanted to buy, the two biggest and especially valuable diamonds were missing.
Ellimeyer explained that he had not yet succeeded in finding a fitting replacement for them. This just suited Hartwieg since he planned to made a jeweller from Brunswick refurbish the tiara.

The executive of the jewellers guild, the master Carl Grieß, and the secretary Ernst Wurm offered their services. Ellimeyer agreed to leave the diadem up to the Court Jeweller of Brunswick, Hermann Jürgens, who was to complete the diamond skeleton. To be on the safe side, Hartwieg made experts examine the manufacturing and the value of the jewel.
Afterwards, he proposed to replace the case with the company name “Ellimeyer” with an etui more worthy. In his correspondence with the monarch of that time, Hartwieg wrote:

“I like the idea of engraving the heraldic figures of Brunswick and Prussia on the jewel-case. But I am stressing the one of Brunswick since Prince Ernst August is important for our land only as the hereditary Prince or Duke of Brunswick, not as the prince of Hanover.”

The Court Jeweller of Brunswick, Jürgens, was able to procure the missing diamonds immediately.
After the completion of the jewel and its case and the monarch’s approval, Hartwieg told the museum's director P. J. Meier to organise the exhibition of the wedding gift (in the Herzog Anton Ulrich Museum). It was presented at the place, where usually the valuable onyx receptacle was positioned. The tiara was guarded day and night and visited by a large crowd of people.

The purchase of the wedding gift from the treasury had been approved in the Landtag session of Brunswick on March 4th.

The finance department took over to handle the case and accepted Hartwiegs proposals unanimously. In his application speech the reporter Lagerfeld, member of the Landtag stressed the following:
“…It has been said several times that there shall not be drawn any political conclusion from the family union between our ducal dynasty and the dynasty Hohenzollern. The finance department does not intend to do that, and we suppose that neither the general assembly of the Länder does so. But these events are so important that we consider it necessary to accentuate this…”

The orator continues with his hopes that this union will bring a descendent to the guelphs, “who will especially benefit our Land of Brunswick…”.

Later, the general assembly of the Landtag had been informed about the choice of the wedding gift: a tiara. Then, on 10th of May 1913, the lawyer von Dähne, chairman of the Brunswick Guelph party, wrote to the Landtag:
“I am surprised that a tiara was chosen as wedding gift. You should have chosen a gift from the dynasty of Brunswick for one of their sons…Concerning this intention, the tiara is as meaningless as possible.”
Von Dähne protested loudly against the decision of the Landtag who considers the gift as offending to the Prince. He thought that this gave the impression of the land sympathising only with the Prussian King’s daughter. He regretted that his sense of tact forbade him to express his opinion in public. “But towards the assembly, he hereby declares his fundamental disagreement.”

However, the Landtag ignored his objection. In these days, Hartwieg was in Berlin to negotiate the arrangement of the line of succession with the Imperial Chancellor, the Minister-president of Prussia, von Bethmann-Hollweg, the Secretary Delbrück and the second Secretary Wahnschaffe.

Apart from these events I consider the modalities of the tiara’s presentation to be important for the decision whom it belongs to.

Hartwieg applied for the permission of the first office of majordomo for presenting the wedding gift with a delegation on May 23rd 1913, the day before the wedding.
This delegation consisted of the president of the general assembly of the Länder and its juristic officer, legal advisor Klaue, and the district director Langerfeldt (who had fallen ill so that mayor Retemeyer stood in for him).

In the application, he wrote:
“…I dare to approach the royal office of major-domo with the request to report on our wish to the highest authority, and of informing me about the decision.” His application was accepted.

On 23.05.1913, Hartwieg wrote in his diary:
“…in the morning, presentation of the gift with my successful and well accepted speech. The tiara made them very happy. The Princess and the Empress were very delighted, Prince Ernst August did not say a very much
In the evening: Gala Opera, Lohengrin, 1st act – I had a privileged seat next to the princely loge…later Circle. Empress and Princess again pretty gracious, Prince again very taciturn…The Emperor told me, he was happy that we were finally had come so far. I was introduced to Duchess Thyra, she was very friendly. The Duke was absent, he felt unwell. Conversations with the King of England, the Grand Duke and the Grand Duchess of Hesse, the Imperial Chancellor and our Lordship…”

The newspapers published Hartwiegs speech:
".........Your royal highness knows about the exceptional delight that the announcement of your engagement has aroused both in the duchy of Brunswick and the general assembly of the Länder.
We can be convinced that the accession to the throne of Brunswick by a descendant of our lord ship will not take long any more. So, our countries wishes will be fulfilled and our future secured.
The ducal government and the general assembly of the land of Brunswick, whose representatives we are nowadays, decided unanimously to offer Your Royal Highness a wedding gift.
It is, at first, a piece of jewellery for Your Royal Highness, the Princess, but we hope that Your Royal Highness, the Prince, will be delighted as well.
We are happy about the thought that the tiara will grace our Duchess of Brunswick at the festivities in our palace. We beg Your Royal Highness most obediently to accept this gift as an expression of the love and admiration of all inhabitants of Brunswick.”

According to the newspaper, the bride and the groom were visibly moved and warmly pleased. This also showed their returning thanks, which the Empress, too, expressed.

The gift met with everybody’s approve. The lord ships could not find enough words to express their delight and appreciation…

The young bride wore the tiara of Brunswick already at the family lunch that day and occasionally at Gala operas.
That is undoubtedly a prove of delight about the gift, which was probably intensified by the intention to accentuate the future diplomatic relations with the land of Brunswick.
Annotation: I couldn’t find a larger picture of Empress Josephine with the orginal tiara, but I will try to get a copy of the picture described above from the national archives. I think it`s another picture as above.

Viktoria Luise Adelheid Mathilde Charlotte Princess of Prussia, Markgravin of Brandenburg, Countess of the Castle of Nuremberg, Countess of Hohenzollern, Duchess of Silesia and the duchy of Glatz, Duchess of the Lower Rhine and Posen, Duchess of Saxony, Westphalia and Engern, of Pomerania, Lüneburg, Silesia-Holstein, Magdeburg, Bremen, Geldern, Cleve, Jülich-Bergen, Wenden and Cassuben, Crossen, Lauenburg, Mecklenburg, Countess of Upper and Lower Laisitz, Princess of Orania, Rügen, East Frisia, Paderborn and Pyrmont, Halberstadt, Münster, Minden, Osnabrück, Hildesheim Verden, Cammin, Fulda, Nassau and Mörs, Princely Countess of Henneberg, Countess of the marches, Ravensburg, Hohenstein, Tecklenburg and Lingen, of Manfeld, Sigmaringen and Veringen, Mistress of Frankfort.
After the marriage, she was furthermore: Princess of Hanover, Princess of Great Britain, Duchess of Cumberland, Brunswick and Brunswick-Lüneburg.

Above right, the Empire Style Diamond Diadem of Duchess Victoria Luise of Brunswick

Above in the picture left, Princess Caroline of Hanover, Princess of Monaco wearing the Brunswick-Tiara of the House of Hanover. More pictures >>

Special Thanks to my dear Caroline Butschal for help!!


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